Electric car batteries are the most expensive single component in an electric car.
It’s high price tag means that electric cars are more expensive than other fuel types, which is slowing down mass EV adoption.
Lithium-ion batteries are the most popular. Without going into too much detail, they discharge and recharge as the electrolyte carries positively charged lithium ions from the anode to the cathode, and vice versa. However, the materials used in the cathode can vary between lithium-ion batteries.
LFP, NMC, and NCA are three different sub-chemistries of Lithium-ion batteries. LFP uses Lithium-phosphate as cathode material; NMC uses Lithium, Manganese, and Cobalt; and NCA uses Nickel, Cobalt and Aluminium.
Benefits of Lithium-ion batteries:
● Cheaper to produce than NMC and NCA batteries.
● Longer lifespan – deliver 2,500-3,000 full charge/discharge cycles compared to 1,000 for NMC batteries.
● Generate less heat during charging so it can sustain a higher rate of power longer into the charge curve, leading to faster charge without battery damage.
● Can be charged to 100% with little battery damage as it helps to calibrate the battery and provide more accurate range estimates - Model 3 owners with an LFP battery are advised to keep the charge limit set to 100%.
Last year, Tesla actually offered its Model 3 customers in America a choice between an NCA or an LFP battery. The NCA battery was 117kg lighter and offered 10 miles more range, but had a much longer lead time. However, Tesla also recommends that the NCA battery variant is only charged to 90% of its capacity. In other words, if you plan to regularly use the full range, the LFP may still be the better option.
Nickel-metal hydride batteries (abbreviated to NiMH) are the only real alternative to lithium-ion batteries that is currently on the market, though they are usually found in hybrid electric vehicles (mostly Toyota) as opposed to pure electric vehicles.
The main reason for this is that the energy density of NiMH batteries is as much as 40% lower than lithium-ion batteries.
Post time: Mar-25-2022